Today, I learned a lot more about alternatives to Jekyll. A local developer (thanks, Chris!) pointed me towards, an all-Javascript solution. That really piqued my interest, so I downloaded Assemble. I think Jekyll is great, but adding a JS parser/generator tool to my toolbag would be worth it.

While I waited for an unusually lengthy npm install I stumbled upon Hexo and Metalsmith, among others. I might stick to Assemble, but I’ll admit it seemed like it might take a while to set up. As long as I’m considering ditching Jekyll, why not shop around?

A challenger appears

Hexo stood out thanks to its easy quick start and great default theme. I was generating and serving a blog in less than a minute. Metalsmith actually didn’t have any themed examples, but it just seemed so simple. If you squint real hard, it looks like Express.

var metalsmith = Metalsmith(__dirname)
    if (err) throw err;

That’s from the build.js in examples/build-tool. It appears to use middleware functions like concat in a pipeline. The middleware style looks similar to Express: instead of req and res you operate on a hash of files and the metalsmith instance. When your middleware has finished processing, you call done, just like next.

function concat(files, metalsmith, done){

  files['index.css'] = {
    contents: new Buffer(css)


The DIY theming seemed a bit spartan, but it does give you some freedom. It’s like a car that doesn’t have doors: it’s a lot easier to just get in and drive.

Reading between the lines

I found a series of good blog posts by Mike Valstar discussing Metalsmith. He mentioned looking at the source code as a good way to understand what it did. I didn’t feel like I got it from just reading the documentation, so I thought I’d give it a try.

Diving into the source just to read it is not always a rewarding experience. Not so! with Metalsmith. I cloned their repository and looked at their index.js. Like a lot of projects, it was just a thin wrapper over the lib/ directory.

module.exports = require('./lib');

So I opened lib/ and found just one file, index.js. Surely something didn’t get cloned, I thought. I opened it up and found just 344 lines. That’s impossible, where is the code? I can read 344 lines of JavaScript. That’s not impossible. So that’s what I decided to do.

The Source

Metalsmith has 2 interfaces: the CLI generator tool, and the JavaScript module. I tended towards the JS side of things, but I’m no enemy of the command line.

The Library

lib/index.js has 14 required modules, 16 methods, and 1 constructor. The constructor is written so you can instantiate it without new.

var ms = Metalsmith(directory)...

I won’t bore you with the required modules. Of the 16 methods, 9 are simple getter/setters.

  1. .clean(..) touches this._clean
  2. .concurrency(..) touches this._concurrency
  3. .destination(..) touches this._destination
  4. .directory(..) touches this._directory
  5. .frontmatter(..) touches this._frontmatter
  6. .ignore(..) touches/appends to this.ignores
  7. .metadata(..) touches this._metadata
  8. .source(..) touches this._source
  9. .use(..) appends to this.plugins

That leaves 7 other methods.

  1. .build() builds files with the current settings and writes them into the destination directory
  2. .path(filenames..) resolves pathnames with respect to the root directory
  3. .read(directory) reads a directory (the source directory, by default) and returns a dictionary of files
  4. .readFile(filename) resolves a filename, reads it, and returns a hash { contents: <Buffer..> }
  5. .run(files, plugins) runs files through plugins and returns a dictionary of files
  6. .write(files, directory) writes a dictionary of files to a directory (the source directory, by default)
  7. .writeFile(filename, data) resolves a filename and writes a data hash { contents: <Buffer..> } to it

That’s pretty much all there is to it. There are still lots of middleware plugins for me to learn, but a pattern does seem to emerge. It’s nice when things are consistent.

module.exports = plugin;

function plugin(opts){
  return function(files, metalsmith, done) {

The Executable

Later I found some more code (just 163 lines) in bin/metalsmith. Again, I’d rather do things in JS than use CLI tools by hand, but I took a look anyway. It seemed a bit less complex than lib/index.js. The executable does just a few things:

  1. Sets up usage information
  2. Sets up a help message
  3. Parses the command line arguments
  4. Parses the config file
  5. Instantiates a Metalsmith
  6. Loads the plugins, one by one
  7. Runs the build!

That’s pretty much it. It’s got 3 helper functions and 4 required modules. It uses chalk to color the terminal output, commander to make the CLI tool, and 2 methods from the native fs and path modules. The helper functions, fatal(msg, stack), log(msg), and normalize(obj) aren’t too lengthy.


Hopefully I didn’t get too much wrong. I just found this tool today, so surely my views are subject to change. I feel like I’ve got a much better handle on it now that I’ve read it. Thanks to Mike Valstar for inspiring me to read the source, and to Segment for writing such a nice little piece of JavaScript. Happy hacking.